Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION: The Britishers came to India as traders in 1600 in the form of the East India Company. The East India Company had rights of trading in India under a Charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I. In the second half of the 18th century, the Company continued to be primarily a trading business. In 1757, the battle of Plassey, and the battle of Buxar in 1764, the decisive victory of the British East India Company established the British rule in India. Britain had a strong and efficient bureaucracy that it established in its colonies. The British were able to establish this control through the Governor, Governor-General, and Viceroy in India.
They first controlled Bengal through a post named ‘Governor of Bengal’. Robert Clive was the first governor of Bengal. However, other presidencies, Bombay and Madras, had their own Governors. In 1773, with the passing of the Regulating Act of 1773, the post of Governor of Bengal was converted into Governor-General of Bengal. This Act provided the governor of Madras and Bombay work under the Governor-General of Bengal. Warren-Hastings became the first Governor-general of Bengal.
Lists of the Governor-General of Bengal between 1773 and 1833 are given below in the table.
|Regulating Act of 1773|
Pitt’s India Act 1784
Stopped Mughal pension to Shah Alam II
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-1782) and Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784)
The first Rohilla War of (1773-1774)
|East India Company|
|Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790-1792)|
Permanent Settlement in Bengal and Bihar.
Introduction of Cornwallis Code in 1793.
Established lower courts and appellate courts
|Charter Act of 1793|
The second Rohilla War in 1793
|Fourth Anglo Mysore War|
Second Anglo Maratha War
Introduction of Subsidiary Alliance System
|Treaty of Amritsar with Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1809|
Charter Act of 1813
|Anglo-Nepal War (1814-1816)|
Treaty of Sugauli in 1816
Third Maratha War
Establishment of Ryotwari System in Madras
|First Anglo Burmese War in 1824-1826|
After the passing of the Charter Act of 1833, the post of Governor-General of Bengal was converted into the Governor-General of India. William Bentinck became the first Governor-general of India.
Lists of the Governor-General of India between 1833 and 1858 are given below in the table.
|Lord William Bentinck|
|Abolition of Sati System in 1829|
Christian Missionaries get exclusive rights to spread Christianity in British India.
|East India Company|
|First Anglo Afghan War|
Established the Bank of Bombay
|Established the Bank of Madras|
British defeat Marathas in the Gwalior war
|First Anglo-Sikh war and treaty of Lahore (1846)|
Treaty of Bhairowal in 1846
|Charter Act of 1853|
Second Anglo-Sikh war
Annexation of Lower Burma
The Post office Act in 1854
|In 1857, Indian Rebellion|
Remarriage Act of Hindu Widows in 1856
After the revolt in 1857, the Company rule was abolished and India came under the direct control of the British Crown by the Government of India Act 1858. This Act changed the name of the post of the Governor-General of India to Viceroy of India. Lord Canning became the first Viceroy of India.
Lists of Viceroy of India between 1858 and 1947 are given below in the table.
|The Government of India Act of 1858|
Abolition of East India Rule
Indian Councils Act of 1861
Establishment of Archaeological Survey of India
|Establishment of High Court Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras in 1862|
Wahabi movement suppressed
|Lord John Lawrence|
|Establishment of Allahabad High Court in 1866|
Bhutan war and Assam and Bengal Duars
|Establishment of the department of commerce and agriculture|
|Jyotiba Phula launches the Satyashodhak Samaj against caste system and untouchability in 1873.|
|Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880)|
Arms Act in 1878
|First complete Census|
Hunter Commission on education in 1882
The first Factory Act in 1881.
|The third Burmese War|
Establishment of Indian National Congress in 1885
|Factory Act in 1891|
Indian Councils Act of 1892
|In 1897, the establishment of Ramkrishana Mission by Swami Vivekananda at Belur Math.|
|Partition of Bengal in 1905|
Indian Universities Act in 1904
|In 1906, the establishment of Muslim League by Aga khan|
The Indian councils Act of 1909
|Lord Hardinge II|
|In 1911, transfer of capital from Calcutta to Delhi|
In 1914, McMahon border was created between India and China.
|In 1916, Lucknow Pact|
Government of India Act of 1919
In 1919, Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre
In 1917, Champaran Satyagraha
|In 1921, Malabar rebellion|
In 1922, establishment of Swaraj Party
In 1925, RSS Foundation
|Simon Commission in 1927|
In 1930, First Round Table Conference
In 1931, execution of Bhagat Singh, Shivaram Rajguru, and Sukhdev Thapar
|The Government of India Act 1935|
In 1934, the Reserve Bank of India Act
In 1932, Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar
|In 1941, formation of the Indian National Army|
In 1942, Cripps Mission
In 1942, Quit India Movement
|In 1945, Simla Conference|
Cabinet Mission in 1946
In 1946, Direct Action Day
In 1946, mutiny in the Royal Navy
(21 Feb 1947-15 Aug 1947)
|The Indian Independence Act of 1947|
After the independence of India, the office of the Governor-General continued to exist as a ceremonial post in India until India adopted a republican constitution in 1950.
Lists of the Governor-General of the Dominion of India between 1947 and 1950 are given below in the table.
(15 Aug 1947-21 June 1948)
|First Governor-General of Dominion of India||George VI|
|Last Governor-General of India, before the office was permanently abolished in 1950|