In a parliamentary form of government, the Parliament is the most important organ. The legislative branch of the Union government of India is called the Parliament, which consists of the President and two houses known as the House of the People (Lok Sabha) and the Council of States (Rajya Sabha).
In the parliamentary system of government, the Prime Minister is the most important post. He is the most powerful functionary who controls both the Parliament and the Executive. The Prime Minister is the head of the government because he is the head of the Council of Ministers.
The President is the head of the Indian State. He is also the Executive Head of India and all the executive powers of the Union are vested in him. The President is the Supreme Commander of the armed forces. He is the first citizen of India and acts as a symbol of unity, integrity, and solidarity of the nation.
Though a federal Constitution involves the sovereignty of the Units within their respective territorial limits, it is not possible for them to remain in complete isolation from each other. Because the smooth operation of any federal system is dependent not only on harmonious relations and close cooperation between the Centre and the states, but also on inter-state cooperation. Like other federal constitutions, the Indian Constitution also makes the following provisions with regard to inter-state comity:
On the basis of relations between the national government and its constituent parts, such as states or provinces, the government can be classified into unitary and federal. In a unitary government, the relationship between the centre and its constituent parts such as states or provinces are largely one-sided, with the central government enjoying almost complete control over its constituent parts such as states or provinces. In a unitary system, almost all power and responsibility are vested in the central government. Local governments may only exercise power through the central government. In this system, sovereignty is vested in the central government alone.
The Constituent Assembly adopted the Indian Constitution on 26th November 1949, and it came into effect on 26th January 1950. The Constitution of India has borrowed most of its provisions from various constitutions of the countries as well as from the Government of India Act of 1935. The structural part of the Constitution is to a large extent and derived from the Government of India Act of 1935.
The Indian Constitution is neither flexible nor rigid but a synthesis of both that can be amended according to the needs of society whenever required. Constitution under Article 368 grants power to the Parliament to amend whenever there is a necessity. The Article also lays down the procedure for amendment in detail. However, this power of the Parliament is not absolute. The Supreme Court has the power to declare any law that it finds unconstitutional void.
At present, according to the United Nations, the number of total countries is 195. Of this, 193 countries are members of the United Nations and 2 countries are non-member observer states (the Holy See and the State of Palestine). Here, we are discussing the twenty-five less-populated countries in terms of population.
Asia is the largest and most diverse continent of the earth. It is located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. Asia covers an area of 44,614,000 square km, almost 30% of Earth’s total land area. It is the most populous continent of the world.
Though the rights and duties of citizens are correlative and inseparable, the original Constitution, enforced on January 26th, 1950, did not mention anything about the duties of citizens. The framers of the Constitution expected that the citizens of free India would perform their duties willingly. But things did not go as expected. Therefore, ten fundamental duties were added in Part-IV A of the Constitution under Article 51-A in the year 1976 through the 42nd Constitutional Amendment. In 2002, one more fundamental duty was added.
Haryana is a land-locked state. It is the twenty largest State by land and the eighteen most populous state in India. It is situated in India's northern region. Haryana shares borders with Uttar Pradesh to the east, Punjab to the west, Himachal Pradesh to the northeast, and Rajasthan to the west and south. Hαryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides (north, west and south).
The river always plays an important role in the evolution of civilization. The river supplies the water for the growth of animals, plants, and humans. Water is necessary for the development of cities. Therefore, all the major cities in India are situated near the banks of the river.